How to build a fire
Tinder is dry material that ignites with little heat—a spark starts a fire. The tinder must be absolutely dry to be sure just a spark will ignite it. If you have a device that generates only sparks, charred cloth will be almost essential. It holds a spark for long periods, allowing you to put tinder on the hot area to generate a small flame.
Old stumps, dead tree limbs and old tree bark can all be used for tinder. look up on trees for dead branches and in tree hollows for tinder you can use.
You can make charred cloth by heating cotton cloth until it turns black, but does not burn. Once it is black, you must keep it in an airtight container to keep it dry. Prepare this cloth well in advance of any survival situation.
Add it to your individual survival kit. Other impromptu items could be alcohol pads or petroleum jelly gauze.
Kindling is readily combustible material that you add to the burning tinder. Again, this material should be absolutely dry to ensure rapid burning. Kindling increases the fire’s temperature so that it will ignite less combustible material.
Fuel is less combustible material that burns slowly and steadily once ignited.
How to build a fire
There are several methods for laying a fire and each one has advantages. The situation you are in will determine which of the following fires to use.
To make a tepee fire (), arrange the tinder and a few sticks of kindling in the shape of a tepee or cone. Light the center. As the tepee burns, the outside logs will fall inward, feeding the fire. This type of fire burns well even with wet wood.
To lay a lean-to fire , push a green stick into the ground at a 30-degree angle. Point the end of the stick in the direction of the wind. Place some tinder deep under this lean-to stick. Lean pieces of kindling against the lean-to stick. Light the tinder. As the kindling catches fire from the tinder, add more kindling.
To use the cross-ditch method , scratch a cross about 30 centimeters (12 inches) in size in the ground. Dig the cross 7.5 centimeters (about 3 inches) deep. Put a large wad of tinder in the middle of the cross. Build a kindling pyramid above the tinder. The shallow ditch allows air to sweep under the tinder to provide a draft.
To lay the pyramid fire , place two small logs or branches parallel on the ground. Place a solid layer of small logs across the parallel logs. Add three or four more layers of logs, each layer smaller than and at a right angle to the layer below it. Make a starter fire on top of the pyramid. As the starter fire burns, it will ignite the logs below it. This gives you a fire that burns downward, requiring no attention during the night.
Methods for Laying Fires
There are several other ways to lay a fire that are quite effective. Your situation and the material available in the area may make another method more suitable.
Another recommendation I saw was the following. Once you have a fire going, get four long logs and place them in a cross fashion so that one end of each log touches the fire, and the logs are at right angles to eachother. As the logs’ ends burn down, you can push more of the log into the fire to add fuel. Best of all, you can quickly put the fire out if necessary, by pulling all of the logs out of the fire, thus getting rid of the fuel source. This would not be so easy to do with a traditional fire where the entire log is engulfed at once.
Posted by Brian